Pedestrian Dynamics ® is a specialized simulation environment to simulate pedestrians. Pedestrian Dynamics is designed to transform CAD drawings, BIM, and CityGML input data into 3D virtual environments in which the performance, safety and security of your environment can be analyzed and optimized.
Train your staff by experiencing various scenarios and get an understanding of the dynamics of managing a crowd entering or exiting an area or building.
- Offers a rapid model building simulation environment which saves time and costs. Only a few steps are required to model pedestrian flows in most complex operations.
- Is flexible, robust and easy to use.
- Has been used widely in many large scale projects to simulate crowd flows in most critical infrastructure environments including stadiums, airports, public transport terminals, mega events and urban planning.
Pedestrian Dynamics® crowd simulation software has a proven track record to analyze and optimize large crowd flows.
- Answer "What if"
- Regulation compliance
- Present & convince
- Improve commerce
- Decrease costs
Answer "What if": Quickly compare alternative designs and scenarios on-the-fly.
Regulation compliance: Help evaluate and address regulatory compliance with local, national and international safety mandates and norms.
Present & convince: Effectively communicate between all stakeholders in the decision making process.
Improve commerce: Increase customer satisfaction by improving pedestrian flows, experiences and comfort and identify commercial attractiveness of locations by flow measurements.
Decrease costs: By optimizing the pedestrian flows in the infrastructure in the design phase, high (additional) costs may be avoided during the operational phase.
Pedestrian Dynamics® crowd simulation software offers the following key features:
- Integrated 2D & 3D pedestrian modelling & visualization
- Fast simulation runs
- Extensive set of model drawing tools
- Simulation of large crowds up to 100,000
Using Pedestrian Dynamics
When the scope and purpose have been defined, performing and evaluating a crowd simulation can in general be divided in four phases. The following unique features of Pedestrian Dynamics® support you in each of these phases.
- Fast model creation
- Scenario preparation
- Simulation and visualization
- Results and benefits
Contains an extensive set of drawing tools to create, modify and classify infrastructural elements and activity locations within an environment. Graphical user interfaces are used to modify specific properties.
Supports many industry standards like CityGML, CAD/ DXF, XML, ADO, ActiveX, 3DS and VRML for importing data and drawings.
Integrated 2D & 3D modeling and viewing.
By applying Explicit Corridor Map (ECM) technology the software automatically creates a unique innovative data structure which represents the continuum walkable space of a multi-layered environment. This state-of-the-art technology originates from the advanced gaming industry and allows Pedestrian Dynamics® to quickly steer and generate paths for a large number of people.
People are represented by autonomous agents. Each agent contains unique properties and preferences which are generated from a group profile. The intuitive graphical user interface makes it easy to define group profiles with predefined rules as well as user defined rules.
The global routing of people is based on activity planning and scheduling. Within the simulation people are routed between an activity goal and a destination.
The experiment wizard for setting up multiple scenarios with different properties saves you valuable experimentation time. The scenarios can be run subsequently.
Besides a large number of predefined rules all settings are fully customizable. A powerful and easy to use scripting language gives you the possibility to easily define your own rules and settings.
Dynamic routing, steering and simulating a high volume of pedestrians. Pedestrian Dynamics® plans visually convincing paths through a crowded environment. Global routes are calculated based on the least-effort principle. The routes are dynamically updated using actual density information ensuring a realistic spread of flow over the environment already on a global level. A collision free corridor around a global route is used to handle a broad range of other path planning issues, such as creating smooth paths and avoiding obstacles. The approach is fast, flexible and allows for a great number of extensions.
Change the settings of your model on the fly during the simulation.
Adaptation to dynamically changing (local) conditions. As in reality the situation can change during the simulation. The ECM data structure can be updated locally in real time. This allows the modeling of changing weather conditions like rain, collapse of a part of a building, spreading smoke, incidents, partly blocked routes and many other incidents or situations that can occur during the simulation run.
Combines agent based and discrete event simulation. Autonomous agents are routed through a continuum space while discrete events are used control other occurrences like activity properties, train arrivals and incidents.
Use different levels of detail by using a combination of a microscopic and mesoscopic simulation approach.
Instant 2D & 3D visualization showing you results right away.
Automatically save a great number of statistics including footstep logs. Consequently, results can be defined, analyzed and compared even after a scenario has been completed without having to re-run scenarios.
The integrated output module allows you to define statistics like density, frequency and crowd pressure maps, travel and queuing times graphs, pedestrian counters and flow rates graphs.
Easy movie playback and recording.
Based on the results of your analysis you are now able to make validated decisions regarding the design and operations of your infrastructure or potential risks with subsequent plan of engagement for events involving large crowds. Due to the amazing visualization you are also able to convince all stakeholders of your infrastructural solution or plan of engagement.
Pedestrian Dynamics® is offered in a complete all-in-one package without add-ons or other additionally required software. It’s all in one box. Pedestrian Dynamics® is offered in different license types for different purposes:
Pedestrian Dynamics® Studio: Design, Analyze & Optimize
Pedestrian Dynamics® studio offers:
- Development of crowd simulation models of any infrastructure
- Evaluation of the infrastructure in the complete lifecycle; from design to operation – Crowd scenario analysis
- Optimization of infrastructure and process design
- Clear communication via 2D and 3D models, movies and output
Pedestrian Dynamics® Developer: Develop, Integrate & Distribute
Pedestrian Dynamics® developer offers:
- All the features of the Pedestrian Dynamics® Studio version
- A platform for personal stream simulation with open architecture
- Development and sharing of end-user applications
- Integration of the platform into your existing system structure
Pedestrian Dynamics® Runtime: Run customized and integrated applications
Pedestrian Dynamics® runtime offers:
- A runtime license for end-user applications developed with Pedestrian Dynamics® Developer
- The use and transfer of own, integrated solutions to third parties
All over the world leading pedestrian simulation specialists team up with INCONTROL to use the most innovative crowd simulation solutions currently available.
Pedestrian Dynamics® can model large crowds of virtual pedestrians (agents) in real-time. To achieve these results, Pedestrian Dynamics® uses efficient crowd simulation algorithms and software, developed together with the Utrecht University (UU) in Utrecht, The Netherlands . The following text gives an introduction to this crowd simulation framework. Interested readers can find more details in the referenced scientific publications.
- Advantages of the Explicit Corridor Map
- Navigation mesh - Explicit Corridor Map
- Density-based crowd simulation
- Route following - The Indicative Route Method
Next to its corridor flexibility, the ECM has more useful properties:
- It can be constructed quickly and automatically, given a set of layers and their obstacles. In Pedestrian Dynamics®, users can quickly build an arbitrary environment and then generate the routing network by pressing a single button.
- It has a small memory footprint: its size is proportional to the complexity of the environment.
- It supports multi-layered environments, in which multiple two-dimensional layers are connected, e.g. through staircases .
- It can plan paths for agents of various sizes, by using only a single data structure. Agents can decide for themselves whether or not a passage (an ECM edge) is wide enough for them to use.
- It can be annotated with more information about the environment, such as the local density (see “Density-based crowd simulation”), special edge costs (e.g. for preferring escalators over staircases), or temporary changes (e.g. staircases that become unavailable, or emergency doors that open up). In short, the Explicit Corridor Map is an efficient and flexible navigation mesh for crowd simulation.
During the simulation, agents should be able to efficiently find a path from their current position to any other position in the environment. A data structure that can answer these path planning questions is called a navigation mesh: a subdivision of the entire walkable space into connected polygonal areas.
One example of a navigation mesh is the Explicit Corridor Map (ECM). The ECM is essentially a network (or a graph) consisting of vertices and edges. Hence, Pedestrian Dynamics® often refers to this data structure as the “ECM network”. The edges of the ECM form the medial axis: a set of curves describing the middle of the walkable space.
For pedestrian simulation tools such as Pedestrian Dynamics®, crowd density is very important. Many researchers have shown that agents generally walk at a slower pace when the local density is high. This relation can be captured in a density formula. Pedestrian Dynamics® contains a number of commonly used formulas; users are free to change them. In literature, crowd density is often measured in persons per square meter (p/m2), assuming that all agents have a certain (average) size. However, Pedestrian Dynamics® supports agents of various sizes: larger agents have a larger contribution to the crowd density. In our framework, the density is simply a value between 0 and 1 denoting how much of an area is occupied. To ensure that Pedestrian Dynamics® can still use density formulas from literature, the “General settings -> Simulation” window contains a setting for the “average agent area”.
The Explicit Corridor Map supports route planning based on density. Recall that each edge of the ECM denotes a set of polygonal areas through its closest-point annotations. In other words, every edge is associated to a walkable polygonal region. By keeping track of the crowd density in these regions, we approximate the density around each edge. A density formula translates this density to an expected walking speed, and an expected traversal time for the edge. The agents can use these traversal times when planning a route: this density-based crowd simulation lets agents avoid crowded regions, and it spreads the crowd among alternative routes in a natural-looking way.
In Pedestrian Dynamics®, general density-related parameters can be found in “General settings”, and the routing preferences can be set for each agent type in “Agent input -> Agent profile -> Route planning”.
Once an agent has planned a global route to its goal position (i.e. it has found a corridor), the agent should look for a way to move through its corridor. For instance, the agent can choose to stay on the left or right side of the corridor, or to follow the shortest possible path with some preferred clearance to obstacles.
The so-called Indicative Route Method (IRM) is a general framework that smoothly steers an agent through a corridor while following an indicated path (the indicative route). In each step of the simulation, the agent computes a desired velocity that will send the agent further along its indicative route. The agent may deviate from this desired velocity, e.g. when walking around other agents, as long as it does not leave its corridor.
In Pedestrian Dynamics®, users can set the options for this path planning phase for each agent profile. These settings can be found in “Agent input -> Agent profile -> Route following”.